Posts Tagged ‘psychology’
David M. Buss, evolutionary psychology professor, and Cindy M. Meston, clinical psychology professor will publish a book titled “Why Women Have Sex: Understanding Sexual Motivations from Adventure to Revenge (and Everything in Between)” on 29th Sept. The book overturned the view of stereotype that women only have sex in the name of love or commitment.
The two professors collected information from more than 1,000 women on their reasons for having sex. These women are consisted of diverse educational, ethnic and religious backgrounds. The result showed there is a diversity of sexual motivations, not only for having a baby, love or physical pleasure. It is interesting to find that women have sex to cure headache, to feel closer to God, to get their sexual partners to take out the trash, or it is simply a sense of duty for some wives.
Tags: Cindy M. Meston, David M. Buss, motivation, psychology, sexual motivation, sexual psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Why Women Have Sex: Understanding Sexual Motivations from Adventure to Revenge (and Everything in Between)
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Recent studies showed that a protein called kainate receptors response to certain antidepressants, and the protein also involved in depression and suicidal thought.
Scientists at Rockefeller University examined one of the five subunits of kainate receptors, KA1 in rats and the result may help to explain the mechanism of the protein reshaping the brain in response to stress. Researchers at Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology at Rockefeller University studied the impact of stress and steroid on rats. They induce stress to the rats by restraining them 6 hours per day for over three weeks. The production of KA1 in these rats increased in certain parts of hippocampus under the instruction sent by messenger RNA. Hippocampus involved in learning and memory functions. Scientists also tried to inject hormone called corticosteroids into the unstressed rats. Low dose of corticosteroids increased KA1 production but high dose did not.
Fortunately the brains will replace the retracted neurons once the stress is removed. The study was published in the journal PLos ONE. The authors were Richard G. Hunter, Rudy Bellani, Erik Bloss, Ana Costa, Katharine McCarthy, and Bruce S. McEwen.
Tags: adaptive plasticity, Ana Costa, Bruce S. McEwen, corticosteroid, depression, Erik Bloss, Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, hippocampal kainate receptor, hippocampus, HPA, KA1, kainate receptor, Katharine McCarthy, mental health, PLoS ONE, psychology, Richard G. Hunter, richard hunter, Rockefeller University, Rudy Bellani, Steroid, stress
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An R-rated motion picture, in the view of the Rating Board, contains some adult material. An R-rated motion picture may include adult themes, adult activity, hard language, intense or persistent violence, sexually-oriented nudity, drug abuse or other elements, so that parents are counselled to take this rating very seriously. Children under 17 are not allowed to attend R-rated motion pictures unaccompanied by a parent or adult guardian. Parents are strongly urged to find out more about R-rated motion pictures in determining their suitability for their children. Generally, it is not appropriate for parents to bring their young children with them to R-rated motion pictures.
A four-year study of 1,246 sixth-grade students in Massachusetts conducted by researchers from University of Massachusetts Medical School showed that kids who watched R-rated movies during youth are more likely to smoke. The data was derived from second Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth, and the individuals were interviewed 11 times from 2002 to 2006.
Researchers suggested that these kids had the parental permission of the smoking activities, which influenced them to smoke as strong as having friends that smoke. It was also suggested that the smoking scenes in the movies may play a role in their smoking behaviour. The impression that cigarettes are easy to obtain in youth is more likely to cause them to smoke.
The study was published in recent issue of American Journal of Preventive Medicine. The authors are Chyke A. Doubeni, Wenjun Li, Hassan Fouayzi and Joseph R. DiFranza. The study was funded by the Substance Abuse Policy Research Program (SAPRP) of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Tags: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Chyke A. Doubeni, cigarette, Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth, Hassan Fouayzi, Joseph R. DiFranza, psychology, r-rated, r-rated movie, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, SAPRP, smoke, smoking, Substance Abuse Policy Research Program, tobacco, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Wenjun Li
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Women had no any rights few centuries ago. Men were the laws. Men treated women badly and treated them worse than animals. Women were only babies and biological energies vessels to men. This could be the problem of men after all.
Susan Fiske and colleaegues at Princeton University studied the male behaviour when they are looking at women in bikinis. The researcher announced in annual meeting of American Association for Advancement of Science held at Chicago that the brain region that is associated with tool use lighted up when men were shown the photos of skimpily dressed women. The researcher also found that when these men were shown sexually appealing photos, the brain part for human interaction had no activity.
The study was based on 21 heterosexual male volunteers. Can this brain scan be a male homosexual detection? Perhaps the researcher can look into it.
Tags: American Association for Advancement of Science, Behaviour, bikini, brain, heterosexual, male behaviour, Princeton University, psychology, susan fiske, tool, women
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The Neurological and Biological Psychology of Opiate Addiction: Why Heroin and Morphine Are Easy to Start but Hard to QuitWritten by theghostwriter on February 6, 2009 – 5:54 pm -
It is commonly known that drug dependence is real and dangerous. Even addicts fall face-first into addiction with the knowledge that the substances they are putting into their body are so harmful that their use may result in serious sickness, or even death. However, addicts continue using. People continue trying drugs for the first time. But why? What makes drug use, particularly the use of opiates such as heroin and morphine, so appealing and so hard to quit?
The simple answer is that heroin and morphine use results in happiness and even elation. Users, as well as the general population, are already aware of this, and may not be interested in finding out more. However, there is significant biological and neurological evidence to support the reasoning behind the causes and effects of opiate addiction, evidence that both users and nonusers can learn from.
Perhaps the most basic piece of biological information related to opiate addiction is opiates’ association with endorphins. Endorphins are, in fact, naturally occurring opiates, which are typically released after a person feels pain or engages in physical activity, explaining why exercise is often considered to be a “natural high.” Endorphins do create feelings of happiness comparable to the feeling of being high, and they are so powerful during periods of pain that they have been known to act as painkillers. But, for some, especially those predisposed to addiction, the natural opiates produced by the body in the form of endorphins are not enough to satisfy, which is why people turn to the use of morphine and heroin to suppresses feelings of happiness.
Heroin and morphine use results in arousal because of the fact that both drugs are agonists, meaning their use leads to excitement. They intensify the feelings of happiness associated with endorphins, which is primarily why they are so addictive, and aside from long-term health effects, an addiction to a mood-booster like heroin or morphine doesn’t seem so terrible, until one takes into consideration the fact that their use results in the body being unable to produce its own natural opiates. Once the body is no longer able to produce natural “feel-good” chemicals, it becomes dependent upon drugs for creating feelings of happiness. Once this occurs, quitting the use of heroin or morphine becomes nearly impossible, as withdrawal leads to complete opiate deprivation, therefore resulting in unpleasant feelings and agitation. The user is unable to feel “normal” until they receive more opiates via drug use, creating a vicious cycle.
The cycle continues because each time the addict uses the drug, they become more and more addicted, and it takes larger amounts of the drug to make them feel happy. In turn, the withdrawal symptoms are intensified, making it harder to stop with each use. And, because opiates in particular exponentially increase natural feelings of happiness, they are especially addictive, and especially dangerous.
More and more research is being conducted to prove just how dangerous opiate addiction is. The results are being published, and people are becoming more and more aware of the reasoning behind why heroin and morphine are so easy to become addicted to, yet so hard to kick. If people know that heroin and morphine can be deadly, the main question is, why do they start using opiates in the first place?
The answer may be that they started with weaker opiates, such as oxycodone or hydrocodone and wanted to try something more intense. Because addiction to substances like hydrocodone and oxycodone is not as hazardous, users likely convince themselves that heroin and morphine are less dangerous than perceived, and once weaker opiates stop producing the effects they once produced, heroin and morphine provide more intense feelings of elation. Because of this, those already addicted to opiates have difficulty resisting the temptation to try these harder drugs.
The inability to say no to harder drugs is also based on genetic factors; some people are genetically-predisposed to being drug addicts. They are born impulsive and with little self-control, making them far more likely to use drugs, and they have specific genotypes that make them likely to develop an opiate addiction. Many addicts lack the genotype that can actually protect people from heroin addiction. Such genetic factors cannot be changed, explaining why many addicts can’t stop themselves from using, despite knowledge of the risks involved with heroin and morphine. Simply stated, heroin addiction is a disease that addicts are born with.
Whether or not they uncover the disease, however, is a subject of much debate. Some argue that steps can be taken to avoid opiate addiction, even if one is genetically-predisposed to use drugs. Others argue that natural-born addicts will nearly always end up using drugs, regardless of the circumstances.
Both theories make sense in certain aspects. Take the straight-A student raised by caring upper-class parents, for example. He or she is often the product of excellent upbringing, yet can still fall victim to opiate addiction. It would seem that if opiate addiction were preventable, being raised in an environment which does not condone drug use would work to prevent addiction. However, children from happy homes do still end up addicted to heroin and morphine, supporting the theory that born addicts will uncover their addictions despite their circumstances.
Still, others argue that upbringing and environment can play a significant role in the prevention of opiate addiction. However, more research needs to be conducted to determine if preventative measures actually work. One thing is clear, though: the prevention methods being used today aren’t effective, because heroin and morphine abuse is on the rise.
Tags: Addiction, biological psychology, drug, drug addict, drug addiction, endorphin, heroin, hydrocodone, morphine, neurological psyhology, opiate, opiate addiction, oxycodone, psychology
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Touching an item may gives you an impulsive urge to buy it, said researchers from Ohio State University and Illinois State University. The researchers did a simple experiment showing that simply touching an inexpensive coffee mug for few seconds will made people attach to, hence buying it at higher price. This study shows that people tend to feel ownership to an item as long as they touch it, and the longer the contact with the item, the stronger the feeling is. The finding is published in the journal Judgment and Decision Making recently.
Does this decision behaviour works on touching living creatures? Do two strangers touching each other for a while will create attachment?
Tags: consumer behavior, Hal Arkes, Illinois State University, James Wolf, Judgment and Decision Making, Ohio State University, psychology, Waleed Muhanna
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Baby baboon, “Daddy, can we have banana for dinner?”
Daddy baboon, “No! We’ll be having mash banana for dinner.”
Baby baboon, “But we’re having mash banana for dinner since you’re the king.”
Daddy baboon, “I said MASH BANANAAAAA!”
A report published in the November 20th issue of Current Biology shows that baboons are loyal animal who follow what their leader tell them, for example, where to eat and what to eat. This study is done by researchers of Zoological Society of London, which includes Andrew J. King, Caitlin M.S. Douglas, Elise Huchard, Nick J.B. Isaac, and Guy Cowlishaw. The findings show that this can provide a lowest cost (in this case, food) compared to the ‘democratic’ in short-term. The followers can also gain long-term benefits, such as reduced risk of being eaten by predators. This study also helps us understand how a group makes decisions, how leaders emerge, and the psychology of followers.
Tags: Andrew J. King, Animal, baboon, Caitlin M.S. Douglas, Elise Huchard, Guy Cowlishaw, leadership, monkey, Nick J.B. Isaac, psychology, social psychology
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Do you know what is your blog personality?
According to Typealyzer, this blog personality is ESTP, the DOER.
The active and play-ful type. They are especially attuned to people and things around them and often full of energy, talking, joking and engaging in physical out-door activities.
The Doers are happiest with action-filled work which craves their full attention and focus. They might be very impulsive and more keen on starting something new than following it through. They might have a problem with sitting still or remaining inactive for any period of time.
Typealyzer uses texts, words and sentences to determine the blog characteristic. I tried it on several blogs of mine, and they showed the same result.
By the way, Kiwi just wins the Rugby World Cup!
Tags: blogging, personality, psychology
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Psychologist Professor Richard Wiseman from University of Hertfordshire designed and built ‘the world’s most relaxing room’ after reviewing the scientific research of relaxation. The room will be opened to up to 10 visitors per group from 21 – 24 October at the University’s de Havilland campus’s Health and Human Sciences Research Institute Showcase. The visitors will be lying on soft matting. Lavender-scented pillows will be provided for them to rest their heads. Glade-like green light will shower them during the fifteen minute session to calm them down. Soothing soundtrack which was specially composed by Tim Blinko will also be played while the visitors lie on the soft mat looking at the clear artificial blue sky.
Perhaps this large-scale relaxation space can be construct in prison to calm the prisoners down.
Tags: Health and Human Sciences Research Institute Showcase, mental health, Professor Richard Wiseman, psychology, relax, relaxation, relaxing, relaxing room, Tim Blinko, University of Hertfordshire
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This is a guest post from Cognitive Therapy Associates (CTA).
“Unemployed and depressed, I have been living off of my girlfriend for months. The relationship isn’t going well. She screams at me daily to get a job and I tell her I’m working on it.
Unfortunately, that is now a lie. I have given up looking for a job long since. I spend my days watching television and eating my girlfriends food. When I know she is on her way back home, I make an escape for a couple hours before returning – this lends credibility to the lie.
For whatever reason, I can’t make myself move forward; this is depressing. Covering my tracks with lies makes me more depressed. I think the extent of my depression is so bad I believe I have brain damage; holes in my cortex like Swiss cheese.
I almost wish I could become a drug addict but drugs, I’ve long learned, don’t function on me like they do others, whether the drugs are for recreational use or prescribed by a doctor, they only make me feel physically ill on top of my sorrow. This is all the more depressing.
It rained today and I realized I had worn holes in the bottom of my only pair of shoes. Good grief! In my shoes, I feel like Charlie Brown would have killed himself! But even suicide is a depressing thought; I am such a coward I could never pull off an ending found so noble by honored cultures of the past. The Japanese samurai had seppuku. The ancient Roman Marc Antony and his Queen, the sensuous Cleopatra, had righteous suicides.
I am neither a noble warrior nor someone defending my love and honor. Suicide would not be sufficiently tragic for my depravity.”
Does this sound like you or someone you know? Perhaps, but fortunately for those who are severely depressed, and are opposed to using pharmaceutical aid on combating their ailments, psychological therapy has been proven, with scientific and empirical evidence, to physically alter the brain.
Depressed lab rats – err, I mean people – were given PET scans to render levels of brain activity prior to treatment. The treatment itself is ‘Cognitive Behavioral Therapy’ (CBT), essentially a method that identifies and helps a person to correct specific errors in what he or she is thinking that produces negative or painful feelings. Dr. Conner, a professional at CBT, says that “intervention for depression takes place at the level of conscious thought”. After 15-20 therapy sessions, the depressed showed improvement in disposition but more importantly PET scans revealed changes in brain chemistry similar to those expressed by drugs and other antidepressants.
With this study, we truly have a case of “mind over matter“.
Tags: brain, CBT, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy', Cognitive Therapy Associates, CTA, Dr. Conner, psychology
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